Jurisdiction Citation Name Text Reports Link
Illinois 32 Ill. 79 (April 1, 1863) Baker v. Administrator of Backus Let not a court of chancery after this be charged with creeping at a snail’s pace to results, when here is seen a case where property valued at many thousands has been taken out of the possession of its owners, sold to others, and the whole proceeding consummated by a confirmation in less than seven days! 0 Link
Illinois 32 Ill. 79 (April 1, 1863) Baker v. Administrator of Backus Seven days had not elapsed, after the ten days had expired, before this bill in chancery was filed, and before the tenth day of July, the whole property of the corporation, and its franchises, had been swept from them; the property sold for a small sum to a rival and insolvent concern, and a solemn decree passed, that the Crystal Lake Ice Company was a myth! 0 Link
Illinois 49 Ill. 437 (April 1, 1863) Phillips v. Phillips Upon one occasion he expressed himself in this characteristic phrase: “ Ha, na! 0 Link
Illinois 49 Ill. 437 (April 1, 1863) Phillips v. Phillips Damn them! 0 Link
Illinois 31 Ill. 188 (April 1, 1863) Olds v. Cummings Thus, if the assignee-of a judgment attempt to enforce it in equity, no1 matter how much he paid for it, or how ignorant he might, have been that it had been paid, or that there was other j reason why it should not be collected, the court of equity will! 0 Link
Illinois 31 Ill. 385 (April 1, 1863) Hopps v. People In every ! 1 Link
Illinois 31 Ill. 385 (April 1, 1863) Hopps v. People Who will! 0 Link
Illinois 31 Ill. 385 (April 1, 1863) Hopps v. People Equally imperative must be the rule, if a reasonable doubt be entertained as to the sanity! 0 Link
Illinois 31 Ill. 385 (April 1, 1863) Hopps v. People Sanity is as necessary to-guilt as any other j fact, and if there is a reasonable doubt of that, there must be ! 1 Link
Illinois 31 Ill. 385 (April 1, 1863) Hopps v. People If he bel affected with insanity, then sound mind is wanting, and crime! 0 Link
Illinois 35 Ill. 487 (April 1, 1864) William M. Ross & Co. v. Innis Such is retributive justice! 0 Link
Illinois 35 Ill. 186 (April 1, 1864) Sutphen v. Cushman Green! 0 Link
Illinois 35 Ill. 282 (April 1, 1864) Speer v. Skinner Another, and the only remaining question raised by appellants,! 1 Link
Illinois 34 Ill. 112 (April 1, 1864) Gilbert v. Guptill We have examine! 0 Link
Illinois 38 Ill. 316 (April 1, 1865) Cooley v. Scarlett The courts of Michigan may well claim the exclusive right of deciding upon the recorded titles! 0 Link
Illinois 37 Ill. 110 (April 1, 1865) Leper v. Pulsifer The complainant comes into court asking relief from! 0 Link
Illinois 37 Ill. 370 (April 1, 1865) McCormick v. Hadden This court has, however, decided that such an agreement is constructively fraudulent as to creditors, and that as to them, the property must be considered as belonging to the pui’chaser holding the possession! 0 Link
Illinois 40 Ill. 218 (April 1, 1866) Chicago & Rock Island Railroad v. McKean The verdict was for five thousand eight hundred and seventy-five dollars, leaving as solatium, for pain and suffering and loss of time, and the permanent injury of appellee, the sum of five thousand two hundred and seventy-three dollars and fifty cents! 0 Link
Illinois 40 Ill. 535 (April 1, 1866) St. John v. Conger There was also a mortgage from Mc-Kemony to Schenck, properly recorded in 1820, and a deed from Schenck to Wkittemore in 1835, and a chain of conveyances from Whittemore to the plaintiff! 0 Link
Illinois 41 Ill. 394 (April 1, 1866) Cornwells & Elliott v. Krengel & Seiferd The defendants again wrote as if the plaintiffs had accepted their order, which they had not, and again saying they “ wanted the paper to come right along! 0 Link
Illinois 41 Ill. 425 (April 1, 1866) Dunning v. Bathrick How, is it not unaccountable, that the owner of‘so much valuable lands, about to return to the place where they are situate, should, in advance of such return, send a deed for them to a perfect stranger, without taking a note for the purchase-money, and without the payment of a dollar, and accept the valuation made by the purchaser’s son-in-law as the true valuation, when he could see the land with his own eyes in a few short weeks, and determine for himself the value, and the more especially as want of money did not compel a sale \ And what is stranger still, that this deed should be put in the post-office, to be sent by mail, when complainant’s own embassador was present, ready to receive it and deliver it to the complainant! 0 Link
Illinois 41 Ill. 425 (April 1, 1866) Dunning v. Bathrick Observe now the generosity, the loving kindness, philanthropy and benevolence of this good Samaritan, the complainant herein! 0 Link
Illinois 41 Ill. 314 (April 1, 1866) Roth v. Smith It is this: “ If the jury believe from the evidence, that the plaintiff was arrested by sheriff Miner, who had his ^possession, at the time of making the arrest, the affidavit offered in evidence, and that it was procured by Harris and Huntington, for the purpose of arresting Roth, they not informing Smith of such! 1 Link
Illinois 41 Ill. 148 (April 1, 1866) Chiniquy v. Catholic Bishop of Chicago Although this act required the Catholic bishop of Chicago, within six months after his appointment to office, to file for record a statement of his appointment, under his hand and corporate seal, and verified by his affidavit, and that the then Catholic bishop of Chicago should comply with such requisition within three months after the act became a law, it nowhere declares his titles shall be forfeited if he does not do these \ things, nor do we conceive the last provision was designed as ¡ a prerequisite to the organization of the corporation of which! 1 Link
Illinois 41 Ill. 357 (April 1, 1866) Child v. Gratiot This is the evident object and policy of the act of 1847; from the same motives of policy then, a non-! 0 Link
Illinois 41 Ill. 279 (April 1, 1866) Reeder v. Purdy The declaraba■«! 2 Link
Illinois 41 Ill. 126 (April 1, 1866) Donnelly v. Harris As asked, it was this: “ The jury are instructed that words spoken are no istification for blows, and that the words proved to have bee! 0 Link
Illinois 42 Ill. 153 (April 1, 1866) McCagg v. Heacock It was there declared as the settled law of this court, that, until the owner of the color of title has united actual possession to the color and to the payment of taxes, he is not in a position to invoke the aid of the second section, for the reason, that such enactment cannot become constitution ally-operative, until the person! 0 Link
Illinois 42 Ill. 261 (April 1, 1866) Iglehart v. Wesson All the authorities agree, that this doctrine of ! 2 Link
Illinois 42 Ill. 321 (Nov. 1, 1866) Gill v. People In the case at bar, for example, the defendant, after making his motion for a new trial, may have stated to the com! 0 Link
Illinois 45 Ill. 197 (Sept. 1, 1867) Chicago & North Western Railroad v. Swett There is no rule better settled than this, that it is the duty ! 0 Link
Illinois 45 Ill. 397 (Sept. 1, 1867) Bunn v. People ex rel. Laflin The opinion of that most eminent jurist, Chief Justice Marshall, clarum et venerdbile nomen! 0 Link
Illinois 45 Ill. 397 (Sept. 1, 1867) Bunn v. People ex rel. Laflin It maybe said of that most distinguished man, “ now to the grave gone down,” that, no matter what the subject might be, howsoever intricate or discolor’d, when committed to the wonderful alembic of his mind, drops of purest, brightest distillation, were the uniform result! 0 Link
Illinois 46 Ill. 18 (Sept. 1, 1867) Schwartz v. Saunders Plaintiff was entitled to demand! 0 Link
Arkansas 25 Ark. 129 (Dec. 1, 1867) Nichol v. Dunn The decree against Nicho! 0 Link
Arkansas 25 Ark. 124 (Dec. 1, 1867) Douglas v. Twombly It is now the settled rule of this State, approved by a continued series of adjudications, that whore an execution has issued on a judgment, been levied on personal property, a delivery bond given and returnee;! 0 Link
Illinois 47 Ill. 53 (Jan. 1, 1868) Cooper v. Ray While the delivery of possession is essential to complete the title by pledge, so by the common law, the loss or delivery back of the possession, with the consent of the pledgee, ! 1 Link
Illinois 46 Ill. 333 (Jan. 1, 1868) People ex rel. Miner v. Salomon In the county of Cook, the most northerly, as it is the most populous and most wealthy county in the State, horses were assessed in 1867, at an average value of thirty-seven dollars sixty-four cents, cattle at eight dollars thirty-nine cents, mules at thirty-five dollars six cents, sheep at one dollar eleven cents, hogs at one dollar eighty-seven cents, carriages and wagons at thirty-six dollars sixty-nine cents, clocks and watches at twelve dollars seventy-nine cents, pianos at ninety-four dollars ninety-seven cents! 0 Link
Illinois 46 Ill. 333 (Jan. 1, 1868) People ex rel. Miner v. Salomon In Crawford, also in the same grade, at two hundred and five dollars fifty-six cents; while in Jo ■Daviess county, with more wealth, greater population, and boasting the city of Galena, they were assessed at twenty-eight dollars seventy-six cents! 0 Link
Illinois 46 Ill. 333 (Jan. 1, 1868) People ex rel. Miner v. Salomon In Lake, another of our most favored and enterprising counties, upon the lake shore, they were assessed at thirty-two dollars sixty-four cents, and carriages and wagons at less than ten dollars! 0 Link
Illinois 46 Ill. 377 (Jan. 1, 1868) Miller v. Ballard This would have been true if the plaintiffs had sought to prove either the contents of the bond, or its acceptance in writing! 0 Link
Illinois 46 Ill. 447 (Jan. 1, 1868) Palmer v. Board of Supervisors We can see no ground for allowing the damages, as no litigation was provoked by the first order, and the employment of counsel was wholly unnecessary! 0 Link
Illinois 48 Ill. 423 (Sept. 1, 1868) City of Galena v. Corwith One single question will, we think, settle the present diffiThe power in the charter to borrow this money, -permits it to be expended in the useful and permanent improvement of the city! 0 Link
Illinois 48 Ill. 172 (Sept. 1, 1868) Ducat v. City of Chicago In the course of the opinion, Chief Justice Marshall said, “ that invisible, intangible, and artificial being, that mere legal entity, a corporation aggregate, is certainly not a citizen, and consequently cannot sue or be sued in the courts of the United States, unless the rights of the members, in this respect, can be exercised in their corporate names,” and in casting about for authority to sustain such a proposition, the distinguished Chief Justice quoted and relied upon 12 Modern! 0 Link
Illinois 48 Ill. 118 (Sept. 1, 1868) Thompson v. Reed The questions asked two of the witnesses, for the purpose of contradicting the witness Campbell, on a collateral and immaterial matter, were improper, but we do not see how they can possibly have prejudiced the plaintiff! 0 Link
Arkansas 25 Ark. 261 (Dec. 1, 1868) Parsel v. Barnes & Bro. "With all due deference for the opinion of the majority of the court,-! 0 Link
Arkansas 25 Ark. 289 (Dec. 1, 1868) Fletcher v. Oliver The complainant entertains a contrary opinion, and says, stop! 0 Link
Illinois 51 Ill. 342 (Sept. 1, 1869) Ætna Insurance v. Maguire The only question the parties then differed about was, whether malt was included in the term “ grain,” as used in the policy! 0 Link
Illinois 53 Ill. 35 (Sept. 1, 1869) O’Neal v. Boone The fact that the plaintiff’s title was recorded did not interfere-with the running of the statute! 0 Link
Illinois 52 Ill. 391 (Sept. 1, 1869) Huls v. Kimball In order to get in evidence about the mortgage, appellant testified that Hinch had it the last time he saw it; that he gave it up with the last note due to him, and did not know where they were; that he did not have them in his possess! 0 Link
Illinois 52 Ill. 512 (Sept. 1, 1869) Kerfoot v. Hyman In truths he was acting in a double capacity, that of agent of the! 1 Link
Illinois 52 Ill. 19 (Sept. 1, 1869) Bane v. Detrick My God! 0 Link
Illinois 2 Ill. Cir. Ct. Rep. 174 (Feb. 15, 1870) People v. Rummel No! 0 Link
Illinois 54 Ill. 281 (June 1, 1870) Mauck v. Mauck One was his interest! 0 Link
Illinois 56 Ill. 430 (Sept. 1, 1870) Vennum v. Vennum This is in full compliance with the statute, which requires a “ demand in writing! 0 Link
Illinois 56 Ill. 81 (Sept. 1, 1870) Iglehart v. Gibson No rule,” said this court, “is better settled than that a party can not compel specific performance of a contract in a com! 0 Link
Illinois 56 Ill. 68 (Sept. 1, 1870) Lawrence v. Hagerman In actions on the case the party injured may recover from! 0 Link
Illinois 57 Ill. 318 (Sept. 1, 1870) Hough v. Ætna Life Insurance His refutation was involved, and his position could alone be maintained by the i regular monthly payment of all sums received by the local! 0 Link
Illinois 55 Ill. 391 (Sept. 1, 1870) Piner v. Cover This instruction ivas calculated to mislead, as such an agree! 0 Link
Illinois 54 Ill. 472 (Sept. 1, 1870) Booth v. Storrs But we think the court erred in compelling appellant’s counsel to go to trig,! 0 Link
Arkansas 26 Ark. 237 (Dec. 1, 1870) Black v. Auditor of State Section 5, which was passed two years later, provides that, “All persons having claims or demands against the State, on ^ny account whatever, shall institute suit therefor in the circuit court in and for the county óf Pulaski, and said court-shall proceed to take and hear all the testimony for and against the same, and shall certify the proof so taken, under the seal! 0 Link
Arkansas 26 Ark. 315 (Dec. 1, 1870) Touhy v. Rector The circuit court, on motion of the plaintiff, dismissed the ease, hut rendered judgment in his favor, against the defendants, for costs, When the judgment in this case was rendered, and until the adoption of the Code, an affidavit was a prerequisite to the granting of an appeal by a justice of the peace; and as none appears to have been made, it is, therefore, very clear, notwithstanding the statement upon the docket, that it “was granted! 0 Link
Illinois 58 Ill. 483 (Jan. 1, 1871) Town of Havana v. Biggs Sixth, “ That by dedication, is meant a giving and granting I of a right or privilege to the public, and before the jury can I find there is a road at the point in controversy, by dedication, I they must be satisfied clearly, from the evidence, that at the! 0 Link
Illinois 58 Ill. 506 (Jan. 1, 1871) Ambrose v. Raley The possess! 0 Link
Illinois 59 Ill. 103 (June 1, 1871) Hartmann v. Hartmann We are satisfied that the land is the safest investment! 0 Link
Arkansas 26 Ark. 510 (June 1, 1871) Ex parte Hays Wo emphatically say, no! 0 Link
Illinois 61 Ill. 167 (Sept. 1, 1871) Bell v. Mallory Stop! 0 Link
Illinois 61 Ill. 499 (Sept. 1, 1871) Uhlich v. Muhlke How applicable is the language to the facts of this case! 0 Link
Illinois 60 Ill. 171 (Sept. 1, 1871) Ryan v. Chicago & Northwestern Railway Co. The employment of the engine driver, and appellant as aj laborer in the carpenter shop, is so dissimilar and separate j: from each other, that appellant should not be held responsible ! 0 Link
Illinois 60 Ill. 241 (Sept. 1, 1871) Buck v. Buck Having consented to these provisions of the decree, the plaintiff in error can have no relief against the force of his own voluntary agreement! 0 Link
Illinois 60 Ill. 413 (Sept. 1, 1871) City of Chicago v. O’Hara The act of 1853, creating the recorder’s court of that city, provided that the fees of the sheriff and clerk in criminal convictions, where they could not be collected from the defendant, should be^paid out of the city treasury! 0 Link
Arkansas 27 Ark. 34 (Dec. 1, 1871) Winston v. Richardson Oil which were the following assignments: “For value received ! 0 Link
Illinois 62 Ill. 375 (Jan. 1, 1872) Fowler v. Fay In the case before us, no intention is express! 0 Link
Illinois 64 Ill. 148 (June 1, 1872) Illinois Central Railroad v. Cobb, Christy & Co. Judgment reversed! 0 Link
Illinois 64 Ill. 162 (June 1, 1872) Moore v. House The terms of the express covenant seem to vest him with the legal interest! 0 Link
Illinois 64 Ill. 162 (June 1, 1872) Moore v. House This agreement was evidently intended as a security to Chamberlain, who was bound to the i company for the completion of the road in a given time, and; hence retained the power in his own hands to pay the laborers;' in case it became necessary to do so to carry on the work,! 0 Link
Illinois 65 Ill. 512 (Sept. 1, 1872) Doane v. Dunham The contrae! 0 Link
Illinois 65 Ill. 129 (Sept. 1, 1872) Martin v. Robson How, how changed! 0 Link
Illinois 66 Ill. 37 (Sept. 1, 1872) Higgins v. Bullock It has been held that the averment, he “made” the bill, when used in reference to the drawer of a bill of exchange, imported the delivery of the bill to the payee! 0 Link
Illinois 64 Ill. 366 (Sept. 1, 1872) Honeyman v. Jarvis The averments of the second are that, prior to the making of the note, one John Honeyman had been appointed guardian for certain minor heirs, by the court of common pleas of Union county, in the State of Indiana, and as such, gave a bond in said court, upon which the plaintiff in this suit was surety! 1 Link
Illinois 64 Ill. 243 (Sept. 1, 1872) Langabier v. Fairbury, Pontiac & Northwestern R. R. Co. To prevent the ruin of an individual, such an act must not be done! 0 Link
Illinois 64 Ill. 325 (Sept. 1, 1872) Stanton v. Dudley The plaintiff testified to four weeks board at $5 per week! 0 Link
Arkansas 28 Ark. 19 (Dec. 1, 1872) Jones v. Jones Green! 1 Link
Arkansas 27 Ark. 457 (Dec. 1, 1872) Ackerman v. Desha County On the 17th day of May, 1870, Ackerman filed in the court his petition for a mandamus against the justices composing the Oounty Court of Desha Count}'! 0 Link
Arkansas 27 Ark. 603 (Dec. 1, 1872) Wells v. Cole It may appropriate them to claims which have no legal obligation, and are founded only in justice! 0 Link
Illinois 67 Ill. 404 (Jan. 1, 1873) Strader v. Snyder The author says the meeting was held in a blacksmith shop —a lie ! 0 Link
Illinois 67 Ill. 306 (Jan. 1, 1873) Martz v. Williams The commissioners having thus established this corner according to distance from south to north, their further duty would have been to establish the same from east to west, and to do this they should have ran an east and west line from the corner of sections two and three, ten and eleven, to the corner between sections six and seven on the west line of the township! 0 Link
Illinois 67 Ill. 498 (Jan. 1, 1873) Gartland v. Toledo, Wabash & Western Railway Co. The express contract by the minoi, in this case, was to serve his employer on a railroad; So ! 0 Link
Illinois 67 Ill. 37 (Jan. 1, 1873) Toledo, Wabash & Western Railway Co. v. City of Jacksonville If it should! 0 Link
Illinois 66 Ill. 471 (Jan. 1, 1873) Chicago & Alton Railroad v. Shea Although this is so, and he is responsible for the loss of an article delivered to him which he is bound to carry, and becomes the insurer for its safe delivery, the rule itself is sub- { ject to a reasonable qualification, for, if the owner of the article ' is guilty of any fraud or imposition in respect to the carrier,, as, by concealing the nature or value of the article, or deludes! 0 Link
Illinois 68 Ill. 314 (June 1, 1873) Smith v. Hickman The bill alleges that an execution had been taken out on the judgment, and levied by the sheriff on certain lands of the complainant! 0 Link
Illinois 68 Ill. 604 (Sept. 1, 1873) Gage v. Lewis In other words, he signed the bond! 0 Link
Illinois 69 Ill. 80 (Sept. 1, 1873) Munn v. People The States have ceded, by express grant in the federal constitution, to the government thereby organized, the power <! 0 Link
Illinois 70 Ill. 618 (Sept. 1, 1873) Blake v. Blake Pinkerton detective,” and were so influenced by it as to decree an estate to be the property of defendants in error, then valued at five hundred thousand dollars! 0 Link
Illinois 71 Ill. 177 (Sept. 1, 1873) Illinois Central Railroad v. Cragin It is urged (that the declaration is defective in averring that defendant! 0 Link
Illinois 71 Ill. 177 (Sept. 1, 1873) Illinois Central Railroad v. Cragin It is a law of our nature to endeavor to preserve omr lives, but the instinct is stronger in some than in others, >;and observation teaches that a person under the influence! 0 Link
Illinois 71 Ill. 177 (Sept. 1, 1873) Illinois Central Railroad v. Cragin This instruction should have been refused, or modified before it was given, so as to inform the jury that, whilst all persons have the love of life and the instinct of! 0 Link
Arkansas 28 Ark. 317 (Dec. 1, 1873) English v. Oliver How the creature swells in importance when the creator’s equal does not satisfy her! 0 Link
Arkansas 28 Ark. 531 (Dec. 1, 1873) Wallace v. State Before testifying to these confessions or admissions, Payne testifies that on the Monday night previous to the Wednesday when Ward was shot, at eight or nine o’clock, he saw the accused crouched down behind the court house fence, nearly opposite Ward’s (the deceased) office, with a double barrelled shotgun and pistols, and said, “Hello! 0 Link
Illinois 75 Ill. 554 (Sept. 1, 1874) Merchants’ Savings, Loan & Trust Co. v. Goodrich The plain tendency of such a contract is detrimental to the public, and it is void upon grounds of public policy! 0 Link
Illinois 74 Ill. 168 (Sept. 1, 1874) Western Union Telegraph Co. v. Tyler The rule there announced is, that the usual regulations ex-» empting companies from liability for errors in unrepeated! 0 Link
Illinois 74 Ill. 168 (Sept. 1, 1874) Western Union Telegraph Co. v. Tyler In the ordinary course of business, the newspapers inform us, and we have no reason to doubt the truth of the statement, telegrams are sent from Hew York to London, and answers received, in about thirty-three minutes, they having passed through thirty-six different hands, and traveled over seven thousand miles ! 0 Link
Illinois 74 Ill. 168 (Sept. 1, 1874) Western Union Telegraph Co. v. Tyler When assented | to by the sender, so as to become a contract, it is equally "void, as against public policy, and also because its terms are i! 0 Link
Illinois 73 Ill. 605 (Sept. 1, 1874) Beatty v. Nickerson The other members of the court, without discussing the question, declared, as their opinion, franc! 0 Link
Illinois 73 Ill. 166 (Sept. 1, 1874) Hartford Fire Insurance v. Farrish From an examination of the whole record, we are satisfied justice has been done, and we perceive no substantial error! 0 Link
Illinois 73 Ill. 140 (Sept. 1, 1874) Gammon v. Hodges Justice Craig delivered the opinion of the Court! 0 Link
Arkansas 29 Ark. 548 (Nov. 1, 1874) Stirman v. Cravens The Judge marked! 1 Link
Arkansas 29 Ark. 31 (Nov. 1, 1874) Johnson v. State But that he could be tried again for murder in the second degree, of which he had been convicted, and a new trial granted at his own request, and for his own benefit, there is no doubt! 0 Link
Illinois 77 Ill. 397 (Jan. 1, 1875) Rutherford v. Morris From the testimony of more than sixty witnesses, who had known the testator intimately for more than thirty years up to the time of making his will—who saw him, had frequent intercourse with him, and transacted business with him occasional! 0 Link
Illinois 77 Ill. 43 (Jan. 1, 1875) Sibert v. Thorp It was held that the decree should have been set aside! 0 Link
Illinois 77 Ill. 443 (Jan. 1, 1875) Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. v. People When any schedules shall have been made or revised as "aforesaid, it shall be the duty of said commissioners to cause publication thereof tobe made for three success! 1 Link
Illinois 76 Ill. 71 (Jan. 1, 1875) Tuck v. Downing In September, 1873, the great money panic occurred, and it is quite probable these gentlemen’s associates found it somewhat difficult to raise the money necessary to develop these mines fully, and because no rich vein was immediately struck they quit the matter in disgust, and now insist upon rescinding the contract on the ground of fraud! 1 Link
Illinois 76 Ill. 71 (Jan. 1, 1875) Tuck v. Downing How many mines have not sustained the hopes created by their out-crop! 1 Link
Illinois 76 Ill. 319 (Jan. 1, 1875) Slade v. McClure It appears from the record that a continuance had been applied for by defendant at a previous term, and allowed! 0 Link
Illinois 76 Ill. 453 (Jan. 1, 1875) Pinckard v. Milmine We recognize the doctrine of estoppel by the recitals in a deed, and that a party claiming under such, deed can not be permitted to deny any fact admitted! 0 Link
Illinois 76 Ill. 399 (Jan. 1, 1875) Hewitt v. Long Hoav inevitable is the separation, in some form, of parent and child ! 0 Link